Faust Software Weitere Leistungen und Anwendungen:

Land Software: LIDOS, FAUST, FAUST-iServer sind Software-Programme auf dem PC, im LAN und im Inter-/Intranet für Bibliothek, Archiv, Museum, Patente. Archivsoftware (Archivprogramm, Archivinformationssystem) ist Branchensoftware für das Faust Entry und Faust Professional, Land Software, D: Institut für. Faust ist als freie Software unter der GPL lizenziert. Am und Juli fand an der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz die erste Internationale. Land Software-Entwicklung. FAUST Professional. FAUST Standard. FAUST Entry Museum. FAUST Entry Archiv. FAUST iServer. LIDOS. FAUST iServer 9 Service - Rechner. Besuchen Sie auch unsere Homepage: klusvak.online iServer. Assistent. Webhosting. Kundenprojekte.

Faust Software

Archivsoftware (Archivprogramm, Archivinformationssystem) ist Branchensoftware für das Faust Entry und Faust Professional, Land Software, D: Institut für. Land Software-Entwicklung FAUST Professional FAUST Standard FAUST EntryMuseum FAUST EntryArchiv FAUST iserver LIDOS FAUST 7 FAUST 7. tem FAUST der Firma Landsoftware,1 welches dort seit im Einsatz ist, sehr zufrieden waren und keine andere Software einführen woll- ten. Aber bis vor.

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Der FAUST iServer ist ein Programm, das alle FAUST Datenbanken im Internet präsentiert. Beitrag von: Doris Land Software-Entwicklung. Postfach Unter dieser Maßgabe erfolgte die Wahl von Faust als Datenbanksoftware für die im Aufbau befindliche Bilddatenbank des ethnographischen Bildarchivs. Die. tem FAUST der Firma Landsoftware,1 welches dort seit im Einsatz ist, sehr zufrieden waren und keine andere Software einführen woll- ten. Aber bis vor. Land Software-Entwicklung FAUST Professional FAUST Standard FAUST EntryMuseum FAUST EntryArchiv FAUST iserver LIDOS FAUST 7 FAUST 7.

Also, note that pre-compiled packages of the Faust compiler and of libfaust for various platforms can be found on the Download Page of the Faust website.

TODO: say something about the fact that faust2 scripts only works on the Mac and Linux and that web services can help Windows users.

Additional information about this Faust target can be found on the corresponding website. Additional information about faust2api can be found on the corresponding website.

Note that Audio Unit plug-ins can also be generated in Faust using faust2juce. In fact, this option might lead to better results in many cases.

This tools was developed by Spencer Salazar. This tool was developed by Albert Gräf. Note that VST plug-ins can also be generated in Faust using faust2vst and faust2juce.

The former was developed prior to faust2faustvst by another author and provides less features. Hence faust2faustvst should be preferred to it.

It can be seen as a subset of faust2svg. While the app might be compiled directly from the command line calling this script, it will be necessary in most cases to generate an Xcode project to fix the bundle identifier of the app, etc.

This chapter describes how to get and compile the Faust compiler as well as other tools related to Faust e. TODO: more info here: normalize and explain that there exist pre-compiled binaries: link to those.

For many years, Faust was nearly dependencies-free, making it easy to compile using make. However, as the compiler developed and started supporting more backends and having more features, things slowly became more complicated.

In particular, LLVM support added a significant layer of complexity to the compilation process. Moreover, the use of make was making the build process almost impossible for non-Unix systems i.

CMake offers great deal of flexibility, both in terms of defining the targets to be compiled as well as selecting the different backends to be included in each target.

However, this flexibility is based on a set of states cached by CMake , which can sometimes make the compilation process a bit obscure.

The goal of this chapter is to provide practical information about this building system. The second section gives details on all the available options.

This section describes the steps to generate a basic Faust build for Unix systems and for windows. In this section, we describe the steps to install and run Faust on a fresh Ubuntu While this process might slightly differ from one Linux distribution to another and on macOS, users used to using the command line should be able to easily adapt these steps to their needs.

The first step is to compile Faust itself. We can now clone the GitHub repository of Faust :. As you probably noticed the LLVM backend is not installed in this basic setup.

A complete installation is described in the next section. The above command will compile noise. For that, you will need to install some development packages depending of your targets.

For example, in order to compile a Faust program as a Jack or ALSA application with a Qt interface , the following development packages will have to be installed:.

It is then possible to use the corresponding faust2 script to generate the corresponding application:. An overview of all the available Faust targets and of their dependencies is available in this section.

The Faust distribution includes the Faust compiler, but also other elements that you may want to compile , in particular libfaust , the library version of the Faust compiler.

The way these elements are compiled can be configured with the appropriate files. This section demonstrate how this system works.

The Faust compiler can output DSP code for various languages. Support for these languages is provided using backends that may or may not be embedded into the compiler or into the Faust compiler library version.

This is intended to simplify the compilation process: some backends like LLVM proved to be a bit complex to compile, some others are not supported by all compilers like the interpreter backend.

In addition, selecting only the set of backends to be used, can reduce significantly the size of the resulting binary.

The backends selection is described using backends files which are actually cmake files that simply populate the cmake cache. They consist of a matrix where each line corresponds to a language support and where the columns select or discard the corresponding backend for each binary output i.

The following example selects the ASMJS backend for the asmjs library , the cpp backend for the compiler and the faust static and dynamic libraries and discards the interpreter backend.

By default the selected backends are taken from backends. Note that make always looks for the backend files in the backends folder.

The -C file option instructs cmake to populate the cache using the file given as argument. During project generation, cmake prints a list of all the backends that will be compiled for each component.

Below you have an example of this output:. Note also that the command faust -v prints the list of embedded backends support by the compiler e.

This is the step where you choose what you want to include in your project before compiling it in a second step. You can also choose the form of your project: a Makefile, an Xcode or Visual Studio project, or any of the generator provided by cmake on your platform.

You may think of this step as the definition of the targets that will be available from your project.

Note that you can also choose the Faust backends that you want to include in the different components compiler and Faust libraries.

Cmake provides support for a lot of development environments depending on you platform. Thus, when you type make , it generates a Makefile and then runs a make command using this Makefile.

To avoid overwriting the existing Makefile, the project is generated in a subfolder named faustdir by default and is created on the fly.

For example:. The makefile provides specific targets to include these libraries in your project:. Equivalent settings using direct cmake invocation are also available.

You can have a look at the Makefile to see the correspondence between the make targets and the cmake equivalent call. The Makefile includes a special target to re-generate a given project.

It can be used to change the backends, but it might also be a necessary step when including new source files source files are scanned at project generation and are not described explicitly.

Simply type:. Once your project has been generated see Building Steps , the default behavior is to compile all the targets that are included in the project.

So, typing make will build the Faust compiler, the OSC static library and the HTTP static library when these 3 components are included in your project.

The default cmake target is all. For example the following command builds all the targets included in your project:. Xcode or Visual Studio. The following sequence creates and build a project using Visual Studio on Windows in release mode:.

More information on how to build the Faust compiler on Windows can be found in the corresponding section. Generated projects always include an install target, which installs all the components included in the project.

There is no uninstall target at the cmake level not supported by cmake. Note that cmake ensures that all the targets of your project are up-to-date before installing and thus may compile some or all the targets.

It can be annoying if you invoke sudo make install : the object files will then be property of the superuser and you can then have errors during later compilations due to access rights issues on object files.

Hence, it is recommended to make sure that all your targets are up-to-date by running make before running sudo make install.

A Faust program is essentially a list of statements. Here is a short Faust program that implements of a simple noise generator called from the noises.

It exhibits various kind of statements : two global metadata declarations, an imports , a comment , and a definition.

We will study later how documentation statements work:. Any Faust program, to be valid, must at least define process.

Metadata allow us to add elements which are not part of the language to Faust code. These can range to the name of a Faust program, its author, to potential compilation options or user interface element customizations.

Note that some Global Metadata have standard names and can be used for specific tasks. Their role is described in the Standard Metadata section.

All global metadata declaration in Faust start with declare , followed by a key and a string. A good practice is to start a Faust program with some standard declarations:.

Metadata can be associated to a specific function. In that case, declare is followed by the name of the function, a key, and a string.

This is very useful when a library has several contributors and that functions potentially have different license terms, etc. There exists a series of standard global metadata in Faust whose role role is described in the following table:.

For example import "maths. The most common file to be imported is the stdfaust. Documentation statements are optional and typically used to control the generation of the mathematical documentation of a Faust program.

This documentation system is detailed in the Mathematical Documentation chapter. In this section we essentially describe the documentation statements syntax.

Free text content, typically in Latex format, can be placed in between these two tags. Moreover, optional sub-tags can be inserted in the text content itself to require the generation, at the insertion point, of mathematical equations , graphical block-diagrams , Faust source code listing and explanation notice.

The expression is evaluated within the lexical context of the Faust program. A definition associates an identifier with an expression. Definitions are essentially a convenient shortcut avoiding to type long expressions.

During compilation, more precisely during the evaluation stage, identifiers are replaced by their definitions. It is therefore always equivalent to use an identifier or directly its definition.

Please note that multiple definitions of a same identifier are not allowed, unless it is a pattern matching based definition.

For example here is the definition of random , a simple pseudo-random number generator:. For example the definition of linear2db , a function that converts linear values to decibels, is:.

Please note that this notation is only a convenient alternative to the direct use of lambda-abstractions also called anonymous functions.

The following is an equivalent definition of linear2db using a lambda-abstraction:. This powerful mechanism allows to algorithmically create and manipulate block diagrams expressions.

Here is another example to count the number of elements of a list. Please note that we simulate lists using parallel composition : 1,2,3,5,7, The main limitation of this approach is that there is no empty list.

Moreover lists of only one element are represented by this element:. If we now write count duplicate 10, , the expression will be evaluated as Note that the order of pattern matching rules matters.

The more specific rules must precede the more general rules. When this order is not respected, as in:. Despite its textual syntax, Faust is conceptually a block-diagram language.

Faust expressions represent DSP block-diagrams and are assembled from primitive ones using various composition operations.

More traditional numerical expressions in infix notation are also possible. Additionally Faust provides time based expressions, like delays, expressions related to lexical environments, expressions to interface with foreign function and lambda expressions.

Diagram expressions are assembled from primitive ones using either binary composition operations or high level iterative constructions.

One can think of each of these composition operations as a particular way to connect two block diagrams. To describe precisely how these connections are done, we have to introduce some notation.

The parallel composition e. It places the two block-diagrams one on top of the other, without connections. The inputs of the resulting block-diagram are the inputs of A and B.

The outputs of the resulting block-diagram are the outputs of A and B. When no parenthesis are used e.

This organization is important to know when using pattern matching techniques on parallel compositions. Parallel composition can be used to put 3 oscillators of different kinds and frequencies in parallel, which will result in a Faust program with 3 outputs:.

Parallel composition can be used to easily turn a mono effect into a stereo one which will result in a Faust program with 2 inputs and 2 outputs:.

Since everything is considered as a signal generator in Faust, sequential composition can be simply used to pass an argument to a function:.

Sequential composition can be used to create an audio effect chain. The split composition e. Split composition can be used to duplicate signals.

For example, the output of the following sawtooth oscillator is duplicated 3 times in parallel. More generally, the split composition can be used to connect a block with a certain number of output to a block with a greater number of inputs:.

The merge composition e. Merge composition can be used to sum an arbitrary number of signals together. While the resulting block diagram will look slightly different, this is mathematically equivalent to:.

More generally, the merge composition can be used to connect a block with a certain number of output to a block with a smaller number of inputs:. The recursive composition e.

It is the most complex operation in terms of connections. Recursive composition can be used to implement a one pole filter with one line of code and just a few characters:.

The number of inputs and outputs of a Faust expression can be known at compile time simply by using inputs expression and outputs expression. For example, the number of outputs of a sine wave oscillator can be known simply by writing the following program:.

Note that Faust automatically simplified the expression by generating a program that just outputs 1. This type of construction is useful to define high order functions and build algorithmically complex block-diagrams.

Here is an example to automatically reverse the order of the outputs of an expression. Iterations are analogous to for The use and role of par , seq , sum , and prod are detailed in the following sections.

The par iteration can be used to duplicate an expression in parallel. Just like other types of iterations in Faust:. Also, note that this example could be re-wrtitten using sum iteration see example in the corresponding section.

The seq iteration can be used to duplicate an expression in series. The fi. When placed in series, it can be used to implement a full peak equalizer:.

Note that i is used here at each iteration to compute various elements and to format some labels. Having user interface elements with different names is a way to force their differentiation in the generated interface.

The sum iteration can be used to duplicate an expression as a sum. The following example is just a slightly different version from the one presented in the par iteration section.

While their block diagrams look slightly different, the generated code is exactly the same. The prod iteration can be used to duplicate an expression as a product.

The following example implements an amplitude modulation synthesizer using an arbitrary number of oscillators thanks to the prod iteration:. Note that the shift parameter can be used to tune the frequency drift between each oscillator.

Infix notation is commonly used in mathematics. Besides its algebra-based core syntax, Faust provides some syntax extensions, in particular the familiar infix notation.

The infix notation is not limited to numbers or numerical expressions. Arbitrary expressions A and B can be used, provided that A,B has exactly two outputs.

Built-in primitives that can be used in infix notation are called infix operators and are listed below. Please note that a more detailed description of these operators is available section on primitives.

Beside infix notation , it is also possible to use prefix notation. The partial application notation is a variant of the prefix notation in which not all arguments are given.

When doing partial application with an infix operator , it is important to note that the supplied argument is not the first argument, but always the second one:.

Please note that this rule only applies to infix operators, not to other primitives or functions. If you partially apply a regular function to a single argument, it will correspond to the first parameter.

The following example demonstrates the use of partial application in the context of a gain controller:. The ' time expression is useful when designing filters, etc.

Therefore, the values of a slider are perfectly acceptable:. Thus, various fractional delay algorithms are implemented in the Faust libraries.

Faust is a lexically scoped language. The meaning of a Faust expression is determined by its context of definition its lexical environment and not by its context of use.

To keep their original meaning, Faust expressions are bounded to their lexical environment in structures called closures.

The following constructions allow to explicitly create and access such environments. Moreover they provide powerful means to reuse existing code and promote modular design.

The with construction allows to specify a local environment : a private list of definition that will be used to evaluate the left hand expression.

The letrec construction is somehow similar to with , but for difference equations instead of regular definitions.

It allows us to easily express groups of mutually recursive signals, for example:. Here is a more involved example. Let say we want to define an envelope generator with an attack and a release time as a number of samples , and a gate signal.

A possible definition could be:. The environment construction allows to create an explicit environment. It is a convenient way to group together related definitions, to isolate groups of definitions and to create a name space hierarchy.

In the following example an environment construction is used to group together some constant definitions :. For example constant.

The library construct allows to create an environment by reading the definitions from a file. For example library "filters. It works like import "miscfilter.

Individual definitions can be accessed as described in the previous paragraph. To avoid name conflicts when importing libraries it is recommended to prefer library to import.

So instead of :. The component construction allows us to reuse a full Faust program e. For example component "freeverb.

Please note that component "freeverb. Explicit substitution can be used to customize a component or any expression with a lexical environment by replacing some of its internal definitions, without having to modify it.

For example we can create a customized version of component "freeverb. Reference to external C functions , variables and constants can be introduced using the foreign function mechanism.

An external C function is declared by indicating its name and signature as well as the required include file. The file maths. Foreign functions with input parameters are considered pure math functions.

They are therefore considered free of side effects and called only when their parameters change that is at the rate of the fastest parameter. Exceptions are functions with no input parameters.

A typical example is the C rand function. In this case, the compiler generates code to call the function at sample rate. The signature part float asinh float in the example presented in the previous section describes the prototype of the C function: return type, function name, and list of parameter types.

Because the name of the foreign function can possibly depend on the floating point precision in use float, double and quad , it is possible to give a different function name for each floating point precision using a signature with up to three function names.

Only numerical functions involving simple int and float parameters are allowed currently in Faust. No vectors, tables or data structures can be passed as parameters or returned.

External variables and constants can also be declared with a similar syntax. In the same maths. Foreign constants are not supposed to vary.

Therefore expressions involving only foreign constants are only computed once, during the initialization period. Variable are considered to vary at block speed.

This means that expressions depending of external variables are computed every block. In declaring foreign functions one has also to specify the include file.

It allows the Faust compiler to add the corresponding include in the generated code. In declaring foreign functions one can possibly specify the library where the actual code is located.

It allows the Faust compiler to possibly automatically link the library. Abstractions and applications are fundamental programming constructions directly inspired by Lambda-Calculus.

These constructions provide powerful ways to describe and transform block-diagrams algorithmically. Abstractions correspond to functions definitions and allow to generalize a block-diagram by making variable some of its parts.

The following expression can be written see the sections on Split Composition and Merge Composition :. The incoming mono signal is split to feed the two input channels of the reverb, while the two output channels of the reverb are mixed together to produce the resulting mono output.

Imagine now that we are interested in transforming other stereo effects. The resulting abstraction can then be applied to transform other effects.

Applications correspond to function calls and allow to replace the variable parts of an abstraction with the specified arguments. For example, the abstraction described in the previous section can be used to transform a stereo reverb:.

Replacing the variable part with the argument is called beta-reduction in Lambda-Calculus. Whenever the Faust compiler find an application of an abstraction it replaces the variable part with the argument.

The resulting expression is as expected:. Pattern matching rules provide an effective way to analyze and transform block-diagrams algorithmically.

The first one will match a sequential expression and invert the two part. The second one will match all remaining expressions and leave it untouched.

Therefore the application:. Please note that patterns are evaluated before the pattern matching operation. Therefore only variables that appear free in the pattern are binding variables during pattern matching.

The primitive signal processing operations represent the built-in functionalities of Faust, that is the atomic operations on signals provided by the language.

All these primitives denote signal processors , in other words, functions transforming input signals into output signals.

Faust considers two types of numbers: integers and floats. Integers are implemented as bits integers, and floats are implemented either with a simple, double, or extended precision depending of the compiler options.

Floats are available in decimal or scientific notation. Like any other Faust expression, numbers are signal processors. For example the number 0.

The waveform primitive was designed to facilitate the use of rdtable read table. It allows us to specify a fixed periodic signal as a list of samples.

Note that the quality of this oscillator is very low because of the low resolution of the triangle waveform. The soundfile "label[url:path]", n simplified syntax allows to use a single file.

A soundfile has:. If more outputs than the actual number of channels in the sound file are used, the audio channels will be automatically duplicated up to the wanted number of outputs so for instance, if a stereo file is used with four output channels, the same group of two channels will be duplicated.

If the soundfile cannot be loaded for whatever reason, a default sound with one channel, a length of frames and null outputs with samples of value 0 will be used.

Note also that soundfiles are entirely loaded in memory by the architecture file, so that the read index signal can access any sample. Architecture files are responsible to load the actual soundfile.

If label is used without any url metadata, it will be considered as the soundfile pathname. Note that a special architecture file can well decide to access and use sound resources created by another means that is, not directly loaded from a sound file.

Most Faust primitives are analogous to their C counterpart but adapted to signal processing. Be aware that the unary - only exists in a limited form.

It can be used with numbers: The cut primitive is expressed in Faust with! In the following example, the!

The int primitive can be used to force the cast of a signal to int. This primitive is useful when declaring indices to read in a table, etc.

The following example will output 1 if the incoming signal is smaller than 0. Note that the result of this operation could be multiplied to another signal to create a condition.

The following code will output 1 if the input signal is smaller or equal than 0. The following code will output 1 if the input signal is greater or equal than 0.

Most of the C math. Faust hosts various modifiers and primitives to define one sample or integer delay of arbitrary length.

They are presented in this section. It can be seen as syntactic sugar to the mem primitive. An integer delay of N samples can be expressed as N in Faust.

Note that N can be dynamic but that its range must be bounded. This can be done by using a UI primitive see example below allowing for the definition of a range such as hslider , vslider , or nentry.

Note that floating point delay is also available in Faust by the mean of various fractional delay implementations available in the Faust standard libraries.

The rdtable primitive can be used to read through a read-only pre-defined before compilation table. The table can either be implemented using a function controlled by a timer such as ba.

The idea is that the table is parsed during the initialization step and before audio computation begins. In this example, a basic and dirty triangle wave-table is defined using the waveform.

It is then used with the rdtable primitive and a phasor to implement a triangle wave oscillator. Note that the output of.

In this example, a sine table is implemented using the sin primitive and a timer ba. The timer parses the sin function during the initialization step of the Faust program.

It is then used with rdtable to implement a sine wave oscillator. It takes an audio input that can be written in the table using a record index i.

In this example, an input signal is written in the table when record is true equal to 1. The read index is constantly updated to loop through the table.

The table size is set to , which corresponds to one second if the sampling rate is KHz. Selector primitives can be used to create conditions in Faust and to implement switches to choose between several signals.

Note that selector primitives optimize the code generated by the Faust compiler by only computing the selected signal.

Note that select2 could be easily implemented from scratch in Faust using Boolean primitives:. While the behavior of this last solution is identical to the first one, the generated code will be less optimized as the sine and the sawtooth waves will both be computed all the time.

The following example allows the user to choose between a sine, a sawtooth and a triangle wave oscillator. Note that select3 could be easily implemented from scratch in Faust using Boolean primitives:.

While the behavior of this last solution is identical to the first one, the generated code will be less optimized as the sine, the sawtooth and the triangle waves will all be computed all the time.

Widgets can be discrete e. Discrete and continuous elements are signal generators. For example, a button produces a signal which is 1 when the button is pressed and 0 otherwise:.

These signals can be freely combined with other audio signals. In fact, the following code is perfectly valid and will generate sound:.

Therefore, hslider , vslider , and nentry can for example be turned into a knob, a dropdown menu, etc.

This concept is further developed in the section on UI metadata. Continuous UI elements i. In some cases, this range is used during compilation to allocate memory and will impact the generated code.

For example, in the case of:. The hgroup primitive implements a horizontal group. A group contains other UI elements that can also be groups.

In the following example, the 2 UI elements controlling an oscillator are encapsulated in a group. The vgroup primitive implements a vertical group.

The vbargraph primitive implements a vertical bar-graph typically a meter displaying the level of a signal.

Note the use of the attach primitive here that forces the compilation of the vbargraph without using its output signal see section on the attach primitive.

The hbargraph primitive implements a horizontal bar-graph typically a meter displaying the level of a signal. Note the use of the attach primitive here that forces the compilation of the hbargraph without using its output signal see section on the attach primitive.

The attach primitive takes two input signals and produces one output signal which is a copy of the first input.

TopicT []. By default this will create an in-memory channel used for intra-process communication, but in practice channels can be backed by any transport network or even means of inter-process communication.

ChannelT []. Or it can be an async iterator that yields values. This is like timer but a one-shot task only executed at worker startup after recovery and the worker is fully ready for operation.

The function may take zero, or one argument. If the target function takes an argument, the app argument is passed:. Like task , but executes periodically until the worker is shut down.

This is an async def function to be run at the fixed times, defined by the Cron format. Like timer , but executes at fixed times instead of executing at certain intervals.

If not set value from timezone will be taken. Decorate mode. Service to be started with the app. Type [ ServiceT []]. Return True if we are in leader worker process.

GlobalTableT []. Decorate async def function to be used as CLI command. Create new faust. Event object.

EventT []. If not set the partition will be chosen by the partitioner. Defaults to current time. Overrides schema if one is specified.

Signature must be unary as the FutureMessage future is passed to it. The resulting faust. RecordMetadata object is then available as fut.

Awaitable [ RecordMetadata ]. Return True if stream is using transactions. Ensure producer is started. This will commit acked messages in all topics if the topics argument is passed in as None.

Remember to call super if you override this method. Like asyncio. Application configuration. Message producer. Message consumer.

Consumer message transport. Producer message transport. Cache backend. HTTP client Session. The router helps us route web requests to the wanted Faust node.

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Making a Polyphonic Synthesizer with Frequency Modulation Synthesis in Faust - Stanford D: Institut für Stadtgeschichte Frankfurt a. Mit insgesamt über Ein PC Programm 2. Von herausragender Bedeutung ist die Kombination der Münz- und Geldscheinbestände in ihrer geographischen Breite und zeitlichen Tiefe. GlГјcksrad Selber Erstellen gibt zwei Wege die elektronischen Daten aus Navision zu exportieren. Automatische Reklamationsnummer. Verwendbar für Export Ihrer Lastschriftvorlagen. Das montan. Optional [ int ]. The Faust libraries documentation provides more details about this system. The vbargraph primitive implements a vertical bar-graph typically a meter displaying the level of a signal. Phone Number. The native LLVM based compilation chain is particularly interesting: it provides direct compilation Licescore a DSP source into executable code in memory, bypassing the external compiler requirement. In addition, selecting only the set Beste Spielothek in Willingrade finden backends to be used, can reduce significantly the size of the resulting binary. Faust Software avoid overwriting the existing Makefile, the project is generated in a subfolder named faustdir by default and is created on the fly. The core component of Faust is its compiler. Faust Software Faust Software

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Build a Stereo Feedback Delay Effect with Faust

In this example, a sine table is implemented using the sin primitive and a timer ba. The timer parses the sin function during the initialization step of the Faust program.

It is then used with rdtable to implement a sine wave oscillator. It takes an audio input that can be written in the table using a record index i.

In this example, an input signal is written in the table when record is true equal to 1. The read index is constantly updated to loop through the table.

The table size is set to , which corresponds to one second if the sampling rate is KHz. Selector primitives can be used to create conditions in Faust and to implement switches to choose between several signals.

Note that selector primitives optimize the code generated by the Faust compiler by only computing the selected signal. Note that select2 could be easily implemented from scratch in Faust using Boolean primitives:.

While the behavior of this last solution is identical to the first one, the generated code will be less optimized as the sine and the sawtooth waves will both be computed all the time.

The following example allows the user to choose between a sine, a sawtooth and a triangle wave oscillator. Note that select3 could be easily implemented from scratch in Faust using Boolean primitives:.

While the behavior of this last solution is identical to the first one, the generated code will be less optimized as the sine, the sawtooth and the triangle waves will all be computed all the time.

Widgets can be discrete e. Discrete and continuous elements are signal generators. For example, a button produces a signal which is 1 when the button is pressed and 0 otherwise:.

These signals can be freely combined with other audio signals. In fact, the following code is perfectly valid and will generate sound:.

Therefore, hslider , vslider , and nentry can for example be turned into a knob, a dropdown menu, etc. This concept is further developed in the section on UI metadata.

Continuous UI elements i. In some cases, this range is used during compilation to allocate memory and will impact the generated code. For example, in the case of:.

The hgroup primitive implements a horizontal group. A group contains other UI elements that can also be groups.

In the following example, the 2 UI elements controlling an oscillator are encapsulated in a group. The vgroup primitive implements a vertical group.

The vbargraph primitive implements a vertical bar-graph typically a meter displaying the level of a signal. Note the use of the attach primitive here that forces the compilation of the vbargraph without using its output signal see section on the attach primitive.

The hbargraph primitive implements a horizontal bar-graph typically a meter displaying the level of a signal.

Note the use of the attach primitive here that forces the compilation of the hbargraph without using its output signal see section on the attach primitive.

The attach primitive takes two input signals and produces one output signal which is a copy of the first input. The role of attach is to force its second input signal to be compiled with the first one.

Such vumeters can be easily coded in Faust using an envelope detector connected to a bargraph. The problem is that the signal of the envelope generators has no role in the output signals.

Using attach x,vumeter x one can tell the compiler that when x is compiled vumeter x should also be compiled. The examples in the hbargraph Primitive and the vbargraph Primitive illustrate well the use of attach.

Labels can contain variable parts. During compilation each label is processed in order to replace the variable parts by the value of the variable.

The variable part can have an optional format digit. An escape mechanism is provided. Thanks to horizontal , vertical , and tabs groups, user interfaces have a hierarchical structure analog to a hierarchical file system.

Each widget has an associated path name obtained by concatenating the labels of all its surrounding groups with its own label.

In order to give more flexibility to the design of user interfaces, it is possible to explicitly specify the absolute or relative pathname of a widget directly in its label.

Group types are defined with the following identifiers:. Hence, the example presented in the section on the hgroup primitive can be rewritten as:.

Note that path names are inherent to the use of tools gravitating around Faust such as OSC control or faust2api. In the case of faust2api , since no user interface is actually generated, UI elements just become a way to declare parameters of a Faust object.

Despite the fact that the signal generated by user interface elements can be used in Faust with any other signals, UI elements run at a slower rate than the audio rate.

This might be a source of clicking if the value of the corresponding parameter is modified while the program is running.

This behavior is also amplified by the low resolution of signals generated by UI elements as opposed to actual audio signals. For example, changing the value of the freq or gain parameters of the following code will likely create clicks in the case of gain or abrupt jumps in the case of freq in the signal:.

This problem can be easily solved in Faust by using the si. Therefore, the previous example can be rewritten as:. Beware that each si.

UI elements provide a convenient entry point to the DSP process in the code generated by the Faust compiler e. For example, the Faust program:.

The second argument of the addHorizontalSlider method is a pointer to the variable containing the current value of the freq parameter.

The value of this pointer can be updated at any point to change the frequency of the corresponding oscillator. Widget labels can contain metadata enclosed in square brackets.

These metadata associate a key with a value and are used to provide additional information to the architecture file.

Since the format of the value associated to a key is relatively open, metadata constitute a flexible way for programmers to add features to the language.

All metadata are removed from the label by the compiler and transformed in calls to the UI::declare method.

This allows the UI::AddSomething method to make full use of the available metadata. Metadata are architecture-specific: it is up to the architecture file to decide what to do with it.

While some metadata will work with most architectures e. Some of them are presented in the following sections. Therefore, UI elements can be ordered by placing a metadata before the declaration of the name of the UI element in the label.

For example, in the following declaration:. This system can be used to order groups as well. Ordering will be carried out on elements at the same level.

Note that global user interfaces completely replacing the one defined using the standard Faust UI primitives may be declared using global metadata.

This is the case of the SmartKeyboard interface for example. In the following subsections, the standard Faust UI metadata are documented.

Other types of metadata e. The [style:knob] metadata turns any continuous UI element i. The [style:menu] metadata turns any continuous UI element i.

The [style:radio] metadata turns a hslider or a vslider into a radio-button-menu. The orientation of the menu is determined by the type of UI element i.

The [style:led] metadata turns a vbargraph or a hbargraph into a blinking LED with varying intensity. The [style:numerical] metadata turns a vbargraph or a hbargraph into a numerical zone thus the bargraph itself is no more displayed.

The [style:dB] metadata changes the unit of a vbargraph or a hbargraph to dB. This impacts its overall appearance by applying a rainbow color scheme, etc.

The [unit:xx] metadata allows us to specify the unit of a UI element. The unit will be displayed right next to the current value of the parameter in the interface.

The [scale:xx] metadata allows for the specification of a scale different than the default linear one to the parameter in the UI. This is very convenient when implementing complex interfaces.

The [hidden:xx] metadata can be used to hide a parameter in the interface. This feature is commonly used when making apps for Android and iOS using faust2android or faust2ios.

Sensors control metadata can be used to map the built-in sensors of mobile devices to some of the parameters of a Faust program.

These metadatas are compatible with the following Faust targets and no additional step is required for them to be taken into account when the corresponding app is generated:.

This allows for the implementation of complex linear and non-linear mappings that are summarized in this figure:. For example, controlling the gain of a synthesizer using the X axis of the accelerometer can be easily done simply by writing something like:.

While the Faust compiler is available in different forms e. The generated code can be wrapped into an optional architecture file allowing to directly produce a fully operational program.

The option -o allows to reroute the standard output to a file:. Note that a wide range of faust Several fine-grained initialization methods are available.

The instanceInit method calls several additional initialization methods. The instanceConstants method sets the instance constant state.

The instanceClear method resets the instance dynamic state delay lines…. The instanceResetUserInterface method resets all control value to their default state.

All of those methods can be used individually on an allocated instance to reset part of its state. By default computation is done sample by sample in a single loop.

But the compiler can also generate vector and parallel code. Current compilers are very sensitive to the way the code is arranged. In particular, complex loops can prevent autovectorization.

Instead of generating a single sample computation loop, it splits the computation into several simpler loops that communicates by vectors.

The vector code generation is activated by passing the --vectorize or -vec option to the Faust compiler. Here is the Faust code that computes the Root Mean Square of a sliding window of samples:.

The corresponding compute method generated in scalar mode is the following:. The vector code generation is built on top of the scalar code generation see previous figure.

Every time an expression needs to be compiled, the compiler checks if it requires a separate loop or not. Expressions that are shared and are complex enough are good candidates to be compiled in a separate loop, as well as recursive expressions and expressions used in delay lines.

The result is a directed graph in which each node is a computation loop see figure below. This graph is stored in the class object and a topological sort is applied to it before printing the code.

Parallel code generation is activated by passing either the --openMP or -omp option or the --scheduler or -sch option. It implies that the -vec option as well as the parallel code generation are built on top of the vector code generation.

OpenMP is a well established API that is used to explicitly define direct multi-threaded, shared memory parallelism. It is based on a fork-join model of parallelism see figure above.

Parallel regions are delimited by pragma omp parallel constructs. At the entrance of a parallel region, a group of parallel threads is activated. The code within a parallel region is executed by each thread of the parallel group until the end of the region.

In order not to have every thread doing redundantly the exact same work, OpenMP provides specific work-sharing directives. For example pragma omp sections allows to break the work into separate, discrete sections, each section being executed by one thread:.

As said before, parallel code generation is built on top of vector code generation. The graph of loops produced by the vector code generator is topologically sorted in order to detect the loops that can be computed in parallel.

If a given set contains only one loop, then the compiler checks to see if the loop can be parallelized no recursive dependencies or not.

If it can be parallelized, it generates:. To illustrate how Faust uses the OpenMP directives, here is a very simple example, two 1-pole filters in parallel connected to an adder:.

The corresponding compute method obtained using the -omp option looks like this:. The reason for this is that many work stealing workloads are divide-and-conquer in nature, stealing one of the oldest task implicitly also steals a potentially large sub-tree of computations that will unfold once that piece of work is stolen and run.

It contains code to deal with WSQ and thread management. The compute and computeThread methods are the following:. The combination of the awesome LLVM technology and libfaust the library version of the Faust compiler allows developers to compile and execute Faust DSP programs on the fly at full speed and without making compromises.

In this section, we demonstrate how the Faust dynamic compilation chain can be used to embed the Faust compiler technology directly in applications or plug-ins.

The Faust compiler uses an intermediate FIR representation Faust Imperative Representation , which can be translated to several output languages.

The FIR language describes the computation performed on the samples in a generic manner. It contains primitives to read and write variables and arrays, do arithmetic operations, and define the necessary control structures for and while loops, if structure, etc.

The native LLVM based compilation chain is particularly interesting: it provides direct compilation of a DSP source into executable code in memory, bypassing the external compiler requirement.

LLVM formerly Low Level Virtual Machine is a compiler infrastructure, designed for compile-time, link-time, and run-time optimization of programs written in arbitrary programming languages.

All steps take place in memory, getting rid of the classical file-based approaches. Pointers to executable functions can be retrieved from the resulting LLVM module and the code directly called with the appropriate parameters.

The Faust compiler has been packaged as an embeddable library called libfaust , published with an associated API. Note that the library keeps an internal cache of all allocated factories so that the compilation of the same DSP code — that is the same source code and the same set of normalized sorted in a canonical order compilation options — will return the same reference counted factory pointer.

When finished, delete can be used to destroy the dsp instance. After the DSP factory has been compiled, the application or the plug-in running it might need to save it and then restore it.

To get the internal factory compiled code, several functions are available:. The libfaust library is fully integrated to the Faust distribution. This allows applications to be remotely controlled from any OSC-capable application, programming language, or hardware device.

OSC support can be added to any Faust program as long as the target architecture supports it: see tables below simply by adding the [osc:on] metadata to the standard option metadata :.

This example can be compiled as a standalone Jack Qt application with OSC support simply by running the following command:.

In order to address each application individually, only one application can be listening on a single port at one time.

Therefore when the default incoming port is already opened by some other application, an application will automatically try increasing port numbers until it finds an available port.

The mixer application fails to open the default incoming port because it is already opened by noise.

Therefore it tries to find an available port starting from and opens it. Please note that the two outcoming ports and are shared by all running applications.

The commands oscsend and oscdump from the liblo package provide a convenient mean to experiment with OSC control and potentially debug applications with OSC support.

The first one will be used to send OSC messages to the noise application using oscsend. The second terminal will be used to monitor the messages sent by the application using oscdump.

Messages received on terminal 2 will be preceded by T Once set we can use the hello message to scan UDP ports for Faust applications. The OSC interface of an application the set of OSC messages we can use to control it can be discovered by sending the get message to the root:.

Transmission is OFF, xmit is set to false. The destination host for sending messages is Therefore to ensure compatibility spaces are replaced by underscores and some other characters asterisk, comma, forward, question mark, open bracket, close bracket, open curly brace, close curly brace are replaced by hyphens.

Here is as an example mix4. For each input we have a mute button and a level slider:. Please, note that blank spaces are replaced by underscores and metadata are removed during this operation.

All addresses must have a common root. This is the case in our example because there is a unique horizontal group mixer containing all widgets.

If a common root is missing as in the following code:. For example, to set the noise level of the application to 0. Now if we move the level slider we get a bunch of messages:.

This feature can be typically used for automation to record and replay actions on the user interface, or to remote control from one application to another.

It can be turned OFF any time using:. Aliases are a convenient mechanism to control a Faust application from a preexisting set of OSC messages. The first step is to configure the TouchOSC host to Then we can use oscdump after quitting the noise application in order to free port to visualize the OSC messages sent by TouchOSC.

Here is what we get:. Several osc aliases can be inserted into a single label allowing the same widget to be controlled by several OSC messages.

Using again oscdump we can visualize the messages sent by TouchOSC:. As we can see, TouchOSC sends the x, y and z accelerometers in a single message, as a triplet of values ranging approximately from We also need to define a mapping because the ranges are different:.

An additional make httpd step is therefore required when compiling and installing Faust:. Note that make httpd will fail if libmicrohttpd is not available on the system.

HTTP support can be added to any Faust program as long as the target architecture supports it: see tables below simply by adding the [http:on] metadata to the standard option metadata :.

The -httpd option embeds a small Web server into the generated application. Its purpose is to serve an HTML page implementing the interface of the app.

As we can see, the embedded Web server is running by default on TCP port It can be open from any recent browser and it produces the page presented in the figure below:.

The communication between the application and the Web browser is based on several underlying URLs.

Here is part of the json returned by mix4 :. Multiple widgets can be queried at once by using an address higher in the hierarchy.

All widgets can be controlled in a similar way. This mode can be started dynamically using the -server URL parameter. Assuming an application with HTTP support is running remotely at the given URL, the control application will fetch its JSON description, use it to dynamically build the user interface, and allow for the access of the remote parameters.

The JSON describes the name, host, and port of the application and a hierarchy of user interface items:. It can be either "vgroup" , "hgroup" or "tgroup".

Widgets are the basic items of the user interface. MIDI is also the preferable way to control Polyphonic instruments.

MIDI support can be added to any Faust program as long as the target architecture supports it: see tables below simply by adding the [midi:on] metadata to the standard option metadata :.

This section provides a list of the most common metadata that can be used to configure of the MIDI behavior of a Faust program.

When used with a button or a checkbox, 1 will be mapped to , 0 will be mapped to 0. The [midi:keyon midikey] metadata assigns the velocity value of a key-on MIDI message received on a specific midikey to a Faust parameter.

In the following example, the frequency of a sawtooth wave oscillator is controlled by the velocity value received on key 62 when a key-on message is sent.

Therefore, the frequency will only be updated when MIDI key 62 is pressed. The [midi:keyoff midikey] metadata assigns the velocity value of a key-off MIDI message received on a specific midikey to a Faust parameter.

In the following example, the frequency of a sawtooth wave oscillator is controlled by the velocity value received on key 62 when a key-off message is sent.

Therefore, the frequency will only be updated when MIDI key 62 is released. The [midi:key midikey] metadata assigns the velocity value of key-on and key-off MIDI messages received on a specific midikey to a Faust parameter.

In the following example, the frequency of a sawtooth wave oscillator is controlled by the velocity value received on key 62 when key-on and key-off messages are sent.

Therefore, the frequency will only be updated when MIDI key 62 is pressed and released. The [midi:keypress midikey] metadata assigns the pressure after-touch value of a specific midikey to a Faust parameter.

In the following example, the frequency of a sawtooth wave oscillator is controlled by the pressure after-touch values received on key Faust is statically typed, using the mypy type checker, so you can take advantage of static types when writing applications.

The Faust source code is small, well organized, and serves as a good resource for learning the implementation of Kafka Streams.

Module Index. Search Page. Order is a json serialized dictionary, having these fields: class Order faust. Introducing Faust What can it do?

How do I use it? AbstractEventLoop — optional event loop to use. Application Parameters — for supported keyword arguments. The startup strategy defines the graph of services to start when the Faust worker for an app starts.

Iterable [ ServiceT []]. Type [ AgentT []]. Type [ SchedulingStrategyT ]. Type [ EventT []]. Type [ GlobalTableT []].

Type [ ClientSession ]. Type [ LeaderAssignorT []]. Type [ SensorT []]. Type [ PartitionAssignorT ]. Type [ RouterT ].

Type [ RegistryT ]. Type [ TableManagerT []]. Type [ TopicT []]. Type [ SupervisorStrategyT ]. List [ URL ]. Optional [ CredentialsT ].

Optional [ int ]. Iterable [ Path ]. Optional [ str ]. Optional [ Callable [[ Optional [ bytes ], Sequence [ int ], Sequence [ int ]], int ]].

Set [ str ]. Set this to True if app should only start the services required to operate as an RPC client producer and simple reply consumer.

ServiceT []. By default the configuration will be read only when required.